How Fuel Injection Systems Work

September 30, 2019 Published by Leave your thoughts

Fuel injection systems in Corpus Christi, TX replaced the carburetor when emissions concerns required technological innovation. First, there were throttle body fuel injection systems that were easier to install as auto manufacturers made the transition from carburetors. Now, most new engines contain a multi-port fuel injection system, which supplies better fuel metering and efficiency, as well as lower emissions. Here’s a closer look at how this system works.

Hit the gas

Everything starts when you hit the gas. The gas pedal is attached to the throttle valve, which regulates air to the engine. When you step on the pedal, the throttle opens and lets the air in.

An engine control unit (ECU) picks up on the open throttle and increases the fuel consumption rate. On well-functioning cars, this occurs immediately. If there is a hesitation between when you hit the gas and when the car speeds up, then there is likely something wrong with the throttle or ECU.

The ECU measures the mass of air to determine the correct amount of fuel. The air-to-fuel ratio balance reduces emissions and controls fuel efficiency better than the old carburetors.

The injector

The air-fuel mix goes to the fuel injector, which is an electronically-controlled valve. When energized, an electromagnet opens the valve and allows pressurized fuel in. The nozzle at the end atomizes the fuel so it is a fine mist that burns easily. The more fuel is supplied, the longer the valve remains open. This is called pulse width, and it is controlled by the ECU.

While the algorithms determining engine performance are complex, generally speaking, the injector controls fuel flow while also supporting performance. Since the engine receives no more fuel than needed, it does not burn extra fuel that often results in high emissions. When fuel is taken down to a spray, made possible by the fuel injector, that reduces the chance of wasted fuel and emissions.

Engine sensors

Fuel injection systems are well-tuned and depend on several engine sensors. The most important is the oxygen sensor, as it determines the air-fuel mix that activates the injectors. Throttle position sensors allow the ECU to respond quickly to changes, whether you remove your foot from the pedal to slow down quick or accelerate to merge into traffic. The throttle position sensor allows the vehicle to adapt to those situations.

The engine speed sensor monitors speed to determine pulse width, which is the number of times an injector must open and close. If there is a high electrical load for any reason, the voltage sensor monitors voltage in case it needs to increase the idle speed.

Fuel injection systems revolutionized automobile technology. If you require service for your diesel fuel injectors, you must find an experienced auto center that can examine the whole system to find clogged injectors or solve any solenoid issues. We can test them to check for clogs, measure spray patterns and measure temperatures to ensure your diesel engine functions to its fullest potential.

Coastal Diesel Injection offers detailed expertise in fuel injection systems in Corpus Christi, TX for your diesel engine. Call us today to schedule a service appointment.

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